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VBF-12_Gosling (en)

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APT

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Attitude, Power, Trim

A method specifically for levelling off from a climb.  

ATTITUDE - Pitch from the Climb attitude to the Straight and Level attitude expected for the required speed.  

POWER - Adjust the throttle to provide the expected power required for the desired speed.  

TRIM - Trim the aircraft in pitch to minimise stick forces so the aircraft maintain the chosen attitude wits minimal input from you.  

See also: PAAT

 

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1 in 60 Rule

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

1 in 60 Rule

This is a method of assessing distance between diverging (or converging) tracks.  

For every degree difference between two tracks there is a 1 nautical mile separation after 60 nautical miles of travel.  

E.g. If a track is flown 5˚ Off heading, after 12 nautical miles there will be 1 nm separation.  

This only works up to about 15˚ of track separation.  

 

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3 OFFs

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Bearing Off, Distance Off, Time Off

A method of checking leg tracking and timing at the mid leg check point during navigation

BEARING OFF - At your mid leg check point assess your location compared to the check point and estimate the difference in bearing from the start waypoint.  

DISTANCE OFF - Estimate the Distance Off of track using the 1 in 60 Rule.  

TIME OFF - Note hoe the time abeam the check point compares to the planned time

From these three Offs the aircraft can be flown back onto track or flown directly to the end leg waypoint.  Also an assessment of the time of arrival at the leg end waypoint can be made or the aircraft speed changed to maintain a time over the waypoint.  

 

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AH

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Artificial Horizon

The main instrument of understanding the aircraft‘s attitude with respect to earth’s surface.  

It is a gyro (or graphical representation) driven by either:

  • A mechanism to maintain its orientation relative to the earth’s surface through rigidity and precession.  
  • A ring laser and accelerometer driven Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)

It is normally mounted centrally on an aircraft main instrument panel.  It can be implemented as graphics within a “glass Cockpit”.  

Further Information: Wikipedia

See also: AI, AHRS, INS

 

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AI

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Attitude Indicator

The main instrument of understanding the aircraft‘s attitude with respect to earth’s surface.  

It is a gyro (or graphical representation) driven by either:

  • A mechanism to maintain its orientation relative to the earth’s surface through rigidity and precession.  
  • A ring laser and accelerometer driven Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)

It is normally mounted centrally on an aircraft main instrument panel.  It can be implemented as graphics within a “glass cockpit”.  

Further Information: Wikipedia

See also: AH, AHRS, INS

 

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Bingo

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Bingo Fuel

The fuel required to fly directly back to base in a straight line.  

 

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Charlie

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Charlie Time

The planned landing time on a vessel.  Often also used for landing ashore.  Usually the expected end of the sortie.  

 

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Chicken

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Chicken Fuel

The minimum fuel required to continue the route as planned.  

 

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Clock Code

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Clock Code

This has two meanings depending upon its application.  

Lookout - When applied to Lookout, Clock Code is a method of identifying an azimuth direction from the aircraft.  Directions from the aircraft begin from 12 O’clock being directly ahead with 6 O’clock being directly astern.  

E.g. 4 O’clock indicates a direction past the abeam on the right side of the aircraft.  

Drift - When applied to Drift, Clock Code is a method of mental arithmetic to estimate the Sin() function.  The difference between the wind direction and the aircraft‘s flight path is compared to minutes of a clock.  The resulting potion of the hour is the portion of Max Drift to be used to estimate the angular correction to make to offset the aircraft‘s heading and so allow for drift, thus keeping the aircraft on track.  

E.g. 30˚ implies 30 minutes which is half an hour and so half the Max Drift should be applied towards the wind for the aircraft to maintain the desired track.  

 

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EGT

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Exhaust Gas Temperature

The exhaust Gas Temperature of a jet engine is one of two primary measurements of engine performance.  The temperature is usually measured at the Power Turbine that drives a shaft through the centre of the engine to spin the blades of the multi-stage compressor.  

See also: RPM

 

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FEEL

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Fuel, Engine, Electrics, Location

A method of ensuring the aircraft has sufficient fuel for the task, is operating correctly and that you know where you are. 

All Aircraft

FUEL - Check the quantity against the expected quantity at that stage of the flight.  Consider this as an amount up or down and compare that to the wind you have experienced so far.  Also ensure that the fuel tanks are in balance and correct with fuel transfer if needed.  

ENGINE - Check the engine instruments for any fluctuations or unusual readings.  

ELECTRICS - Check the generator is providing charge to the battery.  

LOCATION - Check your location is as you expect and you know where the nearest air station is in the case of an emergency.  

Modern Aircraft

The additional systems of a modern aircraft often require a little more than just the above FEEL.  Consider this as FEEL+ and can include things like:

HYDRAULICS - Check the Temperature and Pressure

OXYGEN - Check the contents, flow and pressure

CABIN - Check the Pressurisation and Temperature

Combat Situations

Again, Combat situations may require further checks, see Fence In and Fence Out

Repetitive

These checks should be conducted about every 20 mins (as a minimum after each 30 mins) or after each change of altitude or turning point of a navigation exercise.

 

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HAT

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Heading, Altitude, Time

A method of conducting a turn at a waypoint during navigation.  This occurs twice, Before the turning point is the Pre-HAT and after the turning point is the Post-HAT

Pre-HAT

HEADING - Having seen the turning point (or planning to turn on time) Check the next heading from your navigation plan.  Adjust this heading for drift using Max Drift and Clock Code.  

ALTITUDE - Check if there is a required change of altitude for the next leg and the associated Safety Altitude.  

TIME - If running individual leg timing, reset the clock.  If running continuous timing for the route, note the time at the waypoint.  

At the waypoint, Restart the clock (if required), Lookout and Turn....  JUST Lookout and Turn until rolling out on heading.  Do NOTHING else.

Post-HAT

HEADING - After rolling out, check you have rolled out on your wind adjusted heading.  

ALTITUDE - Adjust your altitude for the next leg.  

TIME - Ensure the clock is running or if you forgot to note the time at the waypoint take the time now and add a few second for the turn.  

 

 

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LAI

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Lookout, Attitude, Instruments

A method of maintaining a good Lookout whilst ensuring the aircraft maintain the desired altitude, heading and speed.  

LOOKOUT - This is completed in two stages, beginning with the Right hemisphere.  Look as deep into your 5 o’clock as you can and scan fully up and down whilst progressing you Lookout back to the ahead.  

ATTITUDE - Whilst looking ahead assess you aircraft‘s attitude to the horizon.  Ensure it remain where you desired.  

INSTRUMENTS - Check that this attitude is maintain your chosen flight path by checking the instruments:

  • Attitude Indicator (AI) - Check the AI matches your attitude.  
  • Altimeter - Either Barometric Altimeter (BarAlt) or Radar Altimeter (RadAlt) - Are you on height.
  • Rate of Climb or Decent Indicator (RCDI) - Is it reading zero.
  • Airspeed Indicator (ASI) - Are you on your chosen speed.  
  • Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI - Compass) - Are you on heading.

See also: SHT for a method of correcting errors

 

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LOI

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Limitation, Operation, Indication

A method of ensuring aircraft limitations are not exceeded when changing aircraft configuration.  

LIMITATION - Before operating any control that will change the configuration of the aircraft like the Flaps, check that the aircraft is within the limitations for that configuration change.  

OPERTION - Select the new configuration.  

INDICATION - Check that the configuration change has been successful by the control indicator.  

E.g. If the Landing Gear speed limitation is 175 kts the process is:

  • Speed below 175
  • Select Gear Down
  • Gear Travelling .... Three Greens
 

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Max Drift

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Max Drift

A method of assessing the effect of wind on the aircraft drift from track.  

MAX DRIFT - The maximum drift an aircraft will suffer from a wind directly abeam the flight path.  This is estimated by taking the windspeed and dividing it by the aircraft’s speed in nm / minute.  

E.g. An aircraft flying at 240 kts is covering 4 nm / minute.  With a wind from directly abeam with a speed of 20 kts the aircraft will suffer a drift of 5˚.  

20 / 4 = 5

See also: Clock Code

 

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NAVEX

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Navigation Exercise

A flight primarily aimed at exercising navigation skills

 

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OAT

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Outside Air Temperature

The temperature of the air around the aircraft.  

Low temperature causes the air to be more dense and so appear as if the aircraft is flying lower when assessed on a Barometric Altimeter.  

Average Air Temperature at sea level for the ICAO Standard Atmosphere is 15°

Wiki: Outside Air Temperature

 

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PAAT

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Progressively Adjust the Attitude and Trim

PROGRESSIVELY ADJUST the ATTITUDE - As an aircraft accelerates from a Climbing speed to a Straight and Level speed the lift initially generated by the initial attitude of attack increases as the speed increase.  If attention is not paid to this the aircraft will begin to climb.  The attitude will need to be progressively reduced as the speed increases.  

and TRIM - At each stage of attitude change the trim will need to be adjusted to ensure the aircraft maintain the new attitude with minimal input from you.  

 

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PAT

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Power, Attitude, Trim

A method of changing airspeed whilst maintaining level flight, or levelling off from a descent.  

POWER - Adjust the throttle to give the expected required power for the new Straight and Level speed.  

ATTITUDE - Adjust the aircraft in pitch to the expected attitude for that speed.  

TRIM - Trim any stick forces to a minimum so that the aircraft maintains the new attitude with minimal attention from you.  

 

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Ramp

by VBF-12_Gosling (en) - Friday, 25 September 2020, 6:30 PM
 

Ramp Fuel

The minimum fuel required to be in the airbase overhead prior to landing, or on deck if landing on a vessel.  

 


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